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Types of Loads

Transporting a wide range of products entails the need to recognize different types of cargo to select the appropriate transport option or request an accurate quote. Cargo refers to goods or merchandise protected by appropriate packaging that facilitates their efficient movement. There are two main categories of cargo: general and bulk. Furthermore, depending on the nature of the products, subdivisions such as dangerous, perishable and fragile cargo can be identified.
Cargo refers to goods or merchandise protected by appropriate packaging that facilitates their efficient movement.

Type of charge

General Cargo:

General cargo is a broad term that refers to manufactured products or packaged goods that do not require special transportation conditions. These can include items such as appliances, clothing, furniture, and electronics. General cargo is typically packed in standard containers, making it easy to handle and transport via ships, planes, and trucks. This category is subdivided into two forms: loose (unitless) and unitized.

  • Loose Cargo (without unit): This type of cargo includes individual or dispersed goods that are handled and shipped as independent units, such as bales, packages, bags, boxes, drums, ties of pieces, among others.
  • Unitized Cargo: Unitized cargo is composed of individual items, such as boxes or packages, and other separate items or loose cargo grouped into units, such as pallets and containers (unitarization process). These elements are ready for transport.

Bulk cargo:

It is that type of cargo that moves in large quantities and without protective wrapping. It is placed directly in the hold of ships, in large, specially conditioned spaces. This cargo is subdivided into three categories: solid (such as fertilizers, grains, foods, fertilizers and minerals), liquid (for example, oil, lubricants, gasoline, diesel and tallow) and gaseous (which includes propane, butane, among others). .

Dangerous load:

This category covers substances that pose a potential risk to health, safety or the environment. This includes flammable, explosive, toxic materials and corrosive chemicals. The transportation of dangerous cargo is subject to strict regulations to ensure the safety of workers and the general public. The United Nations (UN) classifies dangerous cargo into nine categories based on its degree of danger:



Flammable liquids

Flammable solids

Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides

Toxic substances and infectious substances

Radioactive material

Corrosive substances

Miscellaneous dangerous substances and objects

Perishable cargo:

It is one that includes certain items, mainly food items, that experience a natural deterioration in their physical, chemical and microbiological properties due to the passage of time and environmental conditions. Refers to products that require a controlled temperature to preserve their quality during transport. This includes perishable foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products and meat. Refrigerated containers, equipped with refrigeration systems, allow adequate conditions to be maintained during transit, ensuring that products arrive fresh and in good condition.

Project cargo: Project cargo consists of large, irregularly shaped objects that do not fit in standard containers. These can be industrial machinery, construction equipment or infrastructure components. Handling projected cargo requires specialized equipment and meticulous planning to ensure safe and efficient transportation.

Fragile cargo:

They include those elements that are susceptible to damage easily in case of exposure to vibrations, falls, impacts or careless handling during transport. Examples of fragile products are antiques, works of art, porcelain objects, glass items, ceramics, cast iron objects, radio and television tubes, and sculptures, among others.

Due to their particular attributes, each operation involving fragile cargo requires extreme caution, ranging from packaging to handling and transportation of said items.

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